Filella I., Bosch J., Llusià J., Peñuelas A., Peñuelas J. (2011) Chemical cues involved in the attraction of the oligolectic bee Hoplitis adunca to its host plant Echium vulgare. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 39: 498-508.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.bse.2011.07.008
Host recognition is a key process in oligolectic bees but the mechanisms through which they find and recognize appropriate pollen host plant are not entirely clear. Hoplitis adunca is a monolectic bee collecting pollen only from Echium spp. (Boraginaceae). We aimed to test whether Echium vulgare floral scent plays a major role in the attraction of H. adunca females, and to identify components of E. vulgare scent that may be involved in this specific attraction. We used a combination of behavioral and chemical (GC/GC-MS, PTR-MS) analyses. In order to identify the chemical cues likely to be involved in the specific attraction of H. adunca, we compared the scent of fresh flowers, nectar, pollen, and whole plants of E. vulgare and Anchusa officinalis, another Boraginaceae, which does not attract H. adunca. H. adunca females were attracted to the scent of E. vulgare flowers when offered against a blank or against the scent of A. officinalis flowers. However, H. adunca females were not attracted to the scent of A. officinalis flowers when offered against a blank. The emission spectra of the two plant species differed markedly, as did the emission spectra of various flower components (pollen, nectar and whole flowers) within a species. Pollen presented a low volatile release, but emitted significantly higher amounts of mass 55 (butanal, 1,3-butadiene, or other volatiles of molecular mass 54), and mass 83 (hexanal, hexenols, hexenyl acetate, or other volatiles of molecular mass 82) in E. vulgare than in A. officinalis. Nectar produced a particular emission spectrum with high emission rates of masses 109 and 123. Mass 109 may likely correspond to 1,4-benzoquinone, a volatile specifically measured in E. vulgare in parallel studies to this one. The flower emission spectrum was mainly a combination of the pollen and the nectar scents, although it also contained additional volatile compounds such as those of mass 63 or mass 81. As for terpenes, E. vulgare emitted limonene, longicyclene, junipene, trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, that were not detected in A. officinalis, and the most emitted monoterpenes were α-pinene, junipene and limonene whereas the most emitted terpenoid by A. officinalis was α-pinene. After identifying these chemical cues, olfactory/behavioural assays with specific volatiles and combinations of volatiles are necessary to understand the chemical interactions of the H. adunca-E. vulgare system. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Filella I., Bosch J., Llusiá J., Seco R., Peñuelas J. (2011) The role of frass and cocoon volatiles in host location by monodontomerus aeneus, a parasitoid of megachilid solitary bees. Environmental Entomology. 40: 126-131.EnllaçDoi: 10.1603/EN10165
Monodontomerus aeneus (Fonscolombe) is a parasitic wasp that oviposits on the prepupae and pupae of Osmia cornuta (Latreille) and other solitary bee species. A two-armed olfactometer was used to test the olfactory attractiveness of O. cornuta prepupae, cocoon, and larval frass to female M. aeneus. Both cocoon and frass attracted the female parasitoids, but frass alone was more attractive than the cocoon and the cocoon with frass was more attractive than frass alone. Female parasitoids were not attracted by the host prepupa. M33 (methanol) was the organic volatile most emitted by cocoons and m61 (acetic acid) was the compound most emitted by frass. However, cocoons showed higher emission for almost all compounds, including m61 (acetic acid). Although acetic acid alone attracted M. aeneus, a complex volatile signal is probably involved in the attraction process because the ratio of acetic acid and acetaldehyde characteristic of the frass was more attractive than other ratios. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.
Garbulsky M.F., Peñuelas J., Gamon J., Inoue Y., Filella I. (2011) The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the remote sensing of leaf, canopy and ecosystem radiation use efficiencies. A review and meta-analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment. 115: 281-297.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.rse.2010.08.023
Traditional remote sensing techniques allow the assessment of green plant biomass, and therefore plant photosynthetic capacity. However, detecting how much of this capacity is actually realized is a more challenging goal. Is it possible to remotely assess actual carbon fluxes? Can this be done at leaf, canopy and ecosystem scales and at different temporal scales? Different approaches can be used to answer these questions. Among them, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) derived from narrow-band spectroradiometers is a spectral index increasingly being used as an indicator of photosynthetic efficiency. We examined and synthesized the scientific literature on the relationships between PRI and several ecophysiological variables across a range of plant functional types and ecosystems at the leaf, canopy and ecosystem levels and at the daily and seasonal time scales. Our analysis shows that although the strength of these relationships varied across vegetation types, levels of organization and temporal scales, in most reviewed articles PRI was a good predictor of photosynthetic efficiency or related variables with performances at least as good as the widely used NDVI as indicator of green biomass. There are possible confounding factors related to the intensity of the physiological processes linked to the PRI signals, to the structure of the canopies and to the illumination and viewing angles that warrant further studies, and it is expected that the utility of PRI will vary with the ecosystem in question due to contrasting environmental constraints, evolutionary strategies, and radiation use efficiency (RUE; the ratio between carbon uptake and light absorbed by vegetation) variability. Clearly, more research comparing ecosystem responses is warranted. Additionally, like any 2-band index that is affected by multiple factors, the interpretation of PRI can be readily confounded by multiple environmental variables, and further work is needed to understand and constrain these effects. Despite these limitations, this review shows an emerging consistency of the RUE-PRI relationship that suggests a surprising degree of functional convergence of biochemical, physiological and structural components affecting leaf, canopy and ecosystem carbon uptake efficiencies. PRI accounted for 42%, 59% and 62% of the variability of RUE at the leaf, canopy and ecosystem respective levels in unique exponential relationships for all the vegetation types studied. It seems thus that by complementing the estimations of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the vegetation (FPAR), estimated with NDVI-like indices, PRI enables improved assessment of carbon fluxes in leaves, canopies and many of the ecosystems of the world from ground, airborne and satellite sensors. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Garbulsky MF, Peñuelas J, Filella I (2011) L'aigua com a factor clau en l'ús eficient de la radiació per la vegetació terrestre. UABdivulga 02/2011.
Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J, Sardans J, Jump A, Curiel J, Carnicer J, Rutishauser T, Rico L, Keenan T, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Diaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Rivas-Ubach A, Silva J, Boada M, Stefanescu C, Lloret F, Terradas J (2011) Llebot E. (ed). Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya. Institut d'Estudis Catalans i Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona, pp. 373-407.
Peñuelas J., Garbulsky M.F., Filella I. (2011) Photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and remote sensing of plant CO2 uptake. New Phytologist. 191: 596-599.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03791.x
[No abstract available]
Seco R., Filella I., Llusià J., Peñuelas J. (2011) Methanol as a signal triggering isoprenoid emissions and photosynthetic performance in Quercus ilex. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 33: 2413-2422.EnllaçDoi: 10.1007/s11738-011-0782-0
Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported as having a communication role between plants and also between plants and animals. We aimed to test whether methanol, a short-chain oxygenated VOC, could also have a signalling role between plants. We monitored photosynthetic performance and VOC exchange rates of Quercus ilex L. saplings before and after two different treatments: (a) clipping of some leaves to simulate an attack by herbivores and (b) fumigation with gaseous methanol for 5 h to simulate the amount of methanol a plant could receive from surrounding plants if those had been already attacked by herbivores. The clipping treatment enhanced the photosynthetic rates, the chlorophyll a to b ratio and the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio of non-clipped leaves, suggesting an activation of plant protective metabolism. Also, a small but interesting systemic (in non-clipped leaves) increase in methanol emission rates was observed, which agrees with the possibility that methanol may act as a signalling cue. The methanol fumigation treatment induced an increase in the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII and also in the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio. Methanol fumigation also promoted a 14% increase in the monoterpene emission rate, 1 day after the treatment, a similar response to the ones induced by other signalling VOCs. The enhanced monoterpene emissions could add to the blend of VOCs emitted after stress and be part of further signalling pathways, thus forwarding the message started by methanol. This study suggests that clipping and methanol fumigation at natural concentrations elicit significant neighbour plant physiological responses and further BVOC emissions. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
Seco R., Peñuelas J., Filella I., Llusià J., Molowny-Horas R., Schallhart S., Metzger A., Müller M., Hansel A. (2011) Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: The effect of local biogenic emissions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 11: 13161-13179.EnllaçDoi: 10.5194/acp-11-13161-2011
Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NO x and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic VOCs emitted in the local valley by the vegetation, thus enhancing O 3 formation in this forested site. The only VOC species that showed a somewhat different daily pattern were monoterpenes because of their local biogenic emission. Isoprene also followed in part the daily pattern of monoterpenes, but only in summer when its biotic sources were stronger. The increase by one order of magnitude in the concentrations of these volatile isoprenoids highlights the importance of local biogenic summer emissions in these Mediterranean forested areas which also receive polluted air masses from nearby or distant anthropic sources. © 2011 Author(s).
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