Are Urban Vertebrates City Specialists, Artificial Habitat Exploiters, or Environmental Generalists?

Ducatez S., Sayol F., Sol D., Lefebvre L. (2018) Are Urban Vertebrates City Specialists, Artificial Habitat Exploiters, or Environmental Generalists?. Integrative and comparative biology. 58: 929-938.
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Doi: 10.1093/icb/icy101

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Although urbanization is a major threat to biodiversity, some species are able to thrive in cities. This might be because they have specific adaptations to urban conditions, because they are able to cope with artificial habitats in general or because they are generalists that can live in a wide range of conditions. We use the latest version of the IUCN database to distinguish these possibilities in 25,985 species of the four classes of terrestrial vertebrates with the help of phylogenetically controlled methods. We first compare species occurrence in cities with that of the five other artificial habitats recognized by the IUCN and use principal components analyses to ask which of these most resembles cities. We then test whether urban species have a wider habitat breadth than species occurring in other, non-urban, artificial habitats, as well as species that occur only in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the proportion of terrestrial vertebrates that occur in urban environments is small and that, among the species that do occur in cities, the great majority also occur in other artificial habitats. Our data also show that the presence of terrestrial vertebrates in urban habitats is skewed in favor of habitat generalists. In birds and mammals, species occurrence in urban areas is most similar to that of rural gardens, while in reptiles and amphibians, urban areas most resemble pasture and arable land. Our study suggests that cities are likely not unique, as is often thought, and may resemble other types of artificial environments, which urban exploiters can adapt to because of their wide habitat breadth.

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Predictable evolution towards larger brains in birds colonizing oceanic islands

Sayol F., Downing P.A., Iwaniuk A.N., Maspons J., Sol D. (2018) Predictable evolution towards larger brains in birds colonizing oceanic islands. Nature Communications. 9: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05280-8

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Theory and evidence suggest that some selective pressures are more common on islands than in adjacent mainland habitats, leading evolution to follow predictable trends. The existence of predictable evolutionary trends has nonetheless been difficult to demonstrate, mainly because of the challenge of separating in situ evolution from sorting processes derived from colonization events. Here we use brain size measurements of >1900 avian species to reveal the existence of one such trend: increased brain size in island dwellers. Based on sister-taxa comparisons and phylogenetic ancestral trait estimations, we show that species living on islands have relatively larger brains than their mainland relatives and that these differences mainly reflect in situ evolution rather than varying colonization success. Our findings reinforce the view that in some instances evolution may be predictable, and yield insight into why some animals evolve larger brains despite substantial energetic and developmental costs. © 2018, The Author(s).

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Risk-taking behavior, urbanization and the pace of life in birds

Sol D., Maspons J., Gonzalez-Voyer A., Morales-Castilla I., Garamszegi L.Z., Møller A.P. (2018) Risk-taking behavior, urbanization and the pace of life in birds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 72: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1007/s00265-018-2463-0

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Abstract: Despite growing appreciation of the importance of considering a pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) perspective to understand how animals interact with their environment, studies relating behavior to life history under altered environmental conditions are still rare. By means of a comparative analysis of flight initiation distances (i.e., the distance at which an animal takes flight when a human being is approaching) across > 300 bird species distributed worldwide, we document here the existence of a POLS predicted by theory where slow-lived species tend to be more risk-averse than fast-lived species. This syndrome largely emerges from the influence of body mass, and is highly dependent on the environmental context. Accordingly, the POLS structure vanishes in urbanized environments due to slow-lived species adjusting their flight distances based on the perception of risk. While it is unclear whether changes in POLS reflect plastic and/or evolutionary adjustments, our findings highlight the need to integrate behavior into life history theory to fully understand how animals tolerate human-induced environmental changes. Significance statement: Animals can often respond to changing environmental conditions by adjusting their behavior. However, the degree to which different species can modify their behavior depends on their life history strategy and on the environmental context. Species-specific perception of risk is a conspicuous example of adjustable behavior tightly associated with life history strategy. While there is a general tendency of higher risk aversion in rural than city-dwelling birds, it is dependent on the species’ life history strategy. Slow-lived species are more prone to adjust their flight initiation distances based on the perception of risk, allowing humans to approach closer in urban than rural environments. Behavior must therefore be taken into account together with life history to reliably assess species’ vulnerability at the face of ongoing environmental change. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

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Tropical insect diversity: Evidence of greater host specialization in seed-feeding weevils

Peguero, G., Bonal, R., Sol, D., Muñoz, A., Sork, V.L., Espelta, J.M. (2017) Tropical insect diversity: Evidence of greater host specialization in seed-feeding weevils. Ecology. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1002/ecy.1910

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Revisiting the open-field test: what does it really tell us about animal personality?

Perals, D., Griffin, A.S., Bartomeus, I., Sol, D. (2017) Revisiting the open-field test: what does it really tell us about animal personality?. Animal Behaviour. 123: 69-79.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.10.006

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Urbanisation and the loss of phylogenetic diversity in birds

Sol D., Bartomeus I., González-Lagos C., Pavoine S. (2017) Urbanisation and the loss of phylogenetic diversity in birds. Ecology Letters. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/ele.12769

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Despite the recognised conservation value of phylogenetic diversity, little is known about how it is affected by the urbanisation process. Combining a complete avian phylogeny with surveys along urbanisation gradients from five continents, we show that highly urbanised environments supported on average 450 million fewer years of evolutionary history than the surrounding natural environments. This loss was primarily caused by species loss and could have been higher had not been partially compensated by the addition of urban exploiters and some exotic species. Highly urbanised environments also supported fewer evolutionary distinctive species, implying a disproportionate loss of evolutionary history. Compared with highly urbanised environments, changes in phylogenetic richness and evolutionary distinctiveness were less substantial in moderately urbanised environments. Protecting pristine environments is therefore essential for maintaining phylogenetic diversity, but moderate levels of urbanisation still preserve much of the original diversity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

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Why are exotic birds so successful in urbanized environments?

Sol, D., González-Lagos, C., Lapiedra, O., Díaz, M. (2017) Why are exotic birds so successful in urbanized environments?. Ecology and Conservation of Birds in Urban Environments. : 75-89.
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Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-43314-1_5

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The role of motor diversity in foraging innovations: A cross-species comparison in urban birds

Diquelou, M.C., Griffin, A.S., Sol, D. (2016) The role of motor diversity in foraging innovations: A cross-species comparison in urban birds. Behavioral Ecology. 27: 584-591.
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Doi: 10.1093/beheco/arv190

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Testing the island effect on phenotypic diversification: Insights from the Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago

Garcia-Porta J., Šmíd J., Sol D., Fasola M., Carranza S. (2016) Testing the island effect on phenotypic diversification: Insights from the Hemidactylus geckos of the Socotra Archipelago. Scientific Reports. 6: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/srep23729

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Island colonization is often assumed to trigger extreme levels of phenotypic diversification. Yet, empirical evidence suggests that it does not always so. In this study we test this hypothesis using a completely sampled mainland-island system, the arid clade of Hemidactylus, a group of geckos mainly distributed across Africa, Arabia and the Socotra Archipelago. To such purpose, we generated a new molecular phylogeny of the group on which we mapped body size and head proportions. We then explored whether island and continental taxa shared the same morphospace and differed in their disparities and tempos of evolution. Insular species produced the most extreme sizes of the radiation, involving accelerated rates of evolution and higher disparities compared with most (but not all) of the continental groups. In contrast, head proportions exhibited constant evolutionary rates across the radiation and similar disparities in islands compared with the continent. These results, although generally consistent with the notion that islands promote high morphological disparity, reveal at the same time a complex scenario in which different traits may experience different evolutionary patterns in the same mainland-island system and continental groups do not always present low levels of morphological diversification compared to insular groups.

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Relative brain size and its relation with the associative pallium in birds

Sayol F., Lefebvre L., Sol D. (2016) Relative brain size and its relation with the associative pallium in birds. Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 87: 69-77.
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Doi: 10.1159/000444670

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Despite growing interest in the evolution of enlarged brains, the biological significance of brain size variation remains controversial. Much of the controversy is over the extent to which brain structures have evolved independently of each other (mosaic evolution) or in a coordinated way (concerted evolution). If larger brains have evolved by the increase of different brain regions in different species, it follows that comparisons of the whole brain might be biologically meaningless. Such an argument has been used to criticize comparative attempts to explain the existing variation in whole-brain size among species. Here, we show that pallium areas associated with domain-general cognition represent a large fraction of the entire brain, are disproportionally larger in large-brained birds and accurately predict variation in the whole brain when allometric effects are appropriately accounted for. While this does not question the importance of mosaic evolution, it suggests that examining specialized, small areas of the brain is not very helpful for understanding why some birds have evolved such large brains. Instead, the size of the whole brain reflects consistent variation in associative pallium areas and hence is functionally meaningful for comparative analyses. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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