Díaz-de-Quijano M., Peñuelas J., Ribas A. (2009) Increasing interannual and altitudinal ozone mixing ratios in the Catalan Pyrenees. Atmospheric Environment. 43: 6049-6057.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.08.035
Interannual, seasonal, daily and altitudinal patterns of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios, as well as ozone phytotoxicity and the relationship with NOx precursors and meteorological variables were monitored in the Central Catalan Pyrenees (Meranges valley and Forest of Guils) over a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Biweekly measurements using Radiello passive samplers were taken along two altitudinal transects comprised of thirteen stations ranging from 1040 to 2300 m a.s.l. Visual symptoms of ozone damage in Bel-W3 tobacco cultivars were evaluated biweekly for the first three years (2004-2006). High ozone mixing ratios, always above forest and vegetation protection AOT40 thresholds, were monitored every year. In the last 14 years, the AOT40 (Apr-Sept.) has increased significantly by 1047 μg m-3 h per year. Annual means of ozone mixing ratios ranged between 38 and 67 ppbv (38 and 74 ppbv during the warm period) at the highest site (2300 m) and increased at a rate of 5.1 ppbv year-1. The ozone mixing ratios were also on average 35-38% greater during the warm period and had a characteristic daily pattern with minimum values in the early morning, a rise during the morning and a decline overnight, that was less marked the higher the altitude. Whereas ozone mixing ratios increased significantly with altitude from 35 ppbv at 1040 m-56 ppbv at 2300 m (on average for 2004-2007 period), NO2 mixing ratios decreased with altitude from 5.5 ppbv at 1040 m-1 ppbv at 2300 m. The analysis of meteorological variables and NOx values suggests that the ozone mainly originated from urban areas and was transported to high-mountain sites, remaining aloft in absence of NO. Ozone damage rates increased with altitude in response to increasing O3 mixing ratios and a possible increase in O3 uptake due to more favorable microclimatic conditions found at higher altitude, which confirms Bel-W3 as a suitable biomonitor for ozone concentrations during summer time. Compared to the valley-bottom site the annual means of ozone mixing ratios are 37% larger in the higher sites. Thus the AOT40 for the forest and vegetation protection threshold is greatly exceeded at higher sites. This could have substantial effects on plant life at high altitudes in the Pyrenees. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klumpp A., Ansel W., Klumpp G., Breuer J., Vergne P., Sanz M.J., Rasmussen S., Ro-Poulsen H., Ribas Artola A., Peñuelas J., He S., Garrec J.P., Calatayud V. (2009) Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures. Atmospheric Environment. 43: 329-339.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.040
Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dona't d'alta al Newsletter per rebre totes les novetats del CREAF al teu e-mail.
© 2016 CREAF | Avís legal