Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

Klumpp A., Ansel W., Klumpp G., Calatayud V., Garrec J.P., He S., Peñuelas J., Ribas À., Ro-Poulsen H., Rasmussen S., Sanz M.J., Vergne P. (2006) Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities. Environmental Pollution. 139: 515-522.
Enllaç
Doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.05.021

Resum:

Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone #4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Llegeix més

Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

Klumpp A., Ansel W., Klumpp G., Calatayud V., Pierre Garrec J., He S., Peñuelas J., Ribas A., Ro-Poulsen H., Rasmussen S., Sanz M.J., Vergne P. (2006) Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites. Atmospheric Environment. 40: 7963-7974.
Enllaç
Doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.07.017

Resum:

In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning, peak concentrations in the afternoon, and a decline during the night. The widest amplitudes between minimum and maximum values were found in central and southern European cities such as Düsseldorf, Verona, Klagenfurt, Lyon or Barcelona. In the northern European cities of Edinburgh and Copenhagen, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites, was observed. Only the Spanish cities did not fit this pattern; there, ozone levels were again lower than in central European cities, probably due to the direct influence of strong car traffic emissions. In general, ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure were significantly higher at suburban sites than at urban and traffic-exposed sites. When applying the newly established European Union (EU) Directive on ozone pollution in ambient air, it was demonstrated that the target value for the protection of human health was regularly surpassed at urban as well as suburban sites, particularly in cities in Austria, France, northern Italy and southern Germany. European target values and long-term objectives for the protection of vegetation expressed as AOT40 were also exceeded at many monitoring sites. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Llegeix més

Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

Klumpp A., Ansel W., Klumpp G., Vergne P., Sifakis N., Sanz M.J., Rasmussen S., Ro-Poulsen H., Ribas A., Peñuelas J., Kambezidis H., He S., Garrec J.P., Calatayud V. (2006) Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution. Atmospheric Environment. 40: 7437-7448.
Enllaç
Doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.07.001

Resum:

Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic-exposed sites. The tobacco plants were exposed to ambient air for biweekly periods at up to 100 biomonitoring sites from 2000 to 2002. Special emphasis was placed upon methodological standardisation of plant cultivation, field exposure and injury assessment. Ozone-induced leaf injury showed a clearly increasing gradient from northern and northwestern Europe to central and southern European locations. The strongest ozone impact occurred at the exposure sites in Lyon and Barcelona, while in Edinburgh, Sheffield, Copenhagen and Düsseldorf only weak to moderate ozone effects were registered. Between-site differences within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships. This is because the actual ozone flux into the leaf, which is modified by various environmental factors, rather than ambient ozone concentration determines the effects on plants. The advantage of sensitive bioindicators like tobacco Bel-W3 is that the impact of the effectively absorbed ozone dose can directly be measured. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Llegeix més

Surface ozone mixing ratio increase with altitude in a transect in the Catalan Pyrenees

Ribas A., Peñuelas J. (2006) Surface ozone mixing ratio increase with altitude in a transect in the Catalan Pyrenees. Atmospheric Environment. 40: 7308-7315.
Enllaç
Doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.039

Resum:

Tropospheric ozone mixing ratios and their phytotoxicity and NO2 mixing ratios were measured along an altitudinal gradient at the Meranges valley in the Catalan Pyrenees. Biweekly measurements using Radiello passive samplers were taken along a transect of seven stations ranging from 1040 to 2400 m ASL from May to December 2004. As well, at each station biweekly evaluations were made of the visual symptoms of ozone damage in Bel-W3 and Bel-B tobacco cultivars. Whereas ozone mixing ratios increased with altitude, NO2 mixing ratios decreased from the valley floor upwards. Ozone damage rates were found to vary with time and space depending on local environmental and meteorological conditions, although the highest ozone damage to foliage was found in the stations at greatest altitude, especially wherever altitudinal micrometeorological conditions enhanced plant sensitivity. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Llegeix més