Make your own transpiring tree.

Martínez-Vilalta J, Sauret M, Duró A, Piñol J (2003) Make your own transpiring tree. Journal of Biological Education 38:30-35.

Sap flow of three co-occurring Mediterranean woody species under varying atmospheric and soil water conditions.

Martínez-Vilalta J, Mangirón M, Ogaya R, Sauret M, Serrano L, Peñuelas J, Piñol J (2003) Sap flow of three co-occurring Mediterranean woody species under varying atmospheric and soil water conditions. Tree Physiology 23:747-758.

Effect of drought on diameter increment of Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in a holm oak forest of NE Spain

Ogaya R., Peñuelas J., Martínez-Vilalta J., Mangirón M. (2003) Effect of drought on diameter increment of Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in a holm oak forest of NE Spain. Forest Ecology and Management. 180: 175-184.
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Doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00598-4

Resum:

The present study was carried out to elucidate the drought growth responses of Quercus ilex L., Phillyrea latifolia L., Arbutus unedo L., and other accompanying woody species of the Mediterranean holm oak forest. We submitted holm oak forest stands in Prades mountains (NE Spain) to a 2-year experimental drought. We reduced soil water availability about 15% by plastic strips and funnels that partially excluded rain throughfall and by ditch interception of water runoff. Mean stem diameter increment showed a great variation depending on the species. A. unedo had larger growth rates than Q. ilex and P. latifolia, but it was also the species that experimented the highest growth reduction in the drought plots (77%), suggesting a higher drought sensitivity than Q. ilex (55%) and P. latifolia (no drought effect). The growth reduction was specially marked in the larger trees. Aboveground stand biomass increment, estimated from stem diameter by allometric relationships, was 1.9 Mg ha-1 per year in the control plots. The 15% reduction in the upper soil moisture produced 42% reduction in this biomass increment. In the drier conditions predicted in this Mediterranean area in the frame of climate change, an important reduction of growth rates can be hence expected, accompanied by a gain of dominance of drought-tolerant species such as P. latifolia in detriment of more mesic species such as Q. ilex. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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Hydraulic properties of Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinea and Tetraclinis articulata in a dune ecosystem of Eastern Spain

Oliveras I., Martínez-Vilalta J., Jimenez-Ortiz T., Lledó M.J., Escarré A., Piñol J. (2003) Hydraulic properties of Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinea and Tetraclinis articulata in a dune ecosystem of Eastern Spain. Plant Ecology. 169: 131-141.
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Doi: 10.1023/A:1026223516580

Resum:

The hydraulic properties of Pinus pinea, Pinus halepensis and Tetraclinis articulata were studied in a coastal dune area from Eastern Spain. The measured variables include vulnerability to xylem embolism (vulnerability curves), hydraulic conductivity and carbon isotopic discrimination in leaves. Leaf water potentials were also monitored in the three studied populations during an extremely dry period. Our results showed that roots had always wider vessels and higher hydraulic conductivity than branches. Roots were also more vulnerable to xylem embolism and operated closer to their hydraulic limit (i.e., with narrower safety margins). Although it was not quantified, extensive root mortality was observed in the two pines during the study period, in agreement with the high values of xylem embolism (> 75%) predicted from vulnerability curves and the water potentials measured in the field. T. articulata was much more resistant to embolism than P. pinea and P. halepensis. Since T. articulata experienced also lower water potentials, safety margins from hydraulic failure were only slightly wider in this species than in the pines. Combining species and tissues, high resistance to xylem embolism was associated with low hydraulic conductivity and with high wood density. Both relationships imply a cost of having a resistant xylem. The study outlined very different water-use strategies for T. articulata and the pines. Whereas T. articulata had a conservative strategy that relied on the low vulnerability of its conducting system to drought-induced xylem embolism, the two pines showed regulatory mechanisms at different levels (i.e., embolism, root demography) that constrained the absorption of water when it became scarce.

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