sPlot – A new tool for global vegetation analyses

Bruelheide H., Dengler J., Jiménez-Alfaro B., Purschke O., Hennekens S.M., Chytrý M., Pillar V.D., Jansen F., Kattge J., Sandel B., Aubin I., Biurrun I., Field R., Haider S., Jandt U., Lenoir J., Peet R.K., Peyre G., Sabatini F.M., Schmidt M., Schrodt F., Winter M., Aćić S., Agrillo E., Alvarez M., Ambarlı D., Angelini P., Apostolova I., Arfin Khan M.A.S., Arnst E., Attorre F., Baraloto C., Beckmann M., Berg C., Bergeron Y., Bergmeier E., Bjorkman A.D., Bondareva V., Borchardt P., Botta-Dukát Z., Boyle B., Breen A., Brisse H., Byun C., Cabido M.R., Casella L., Cayuela L., Černý T., Chepinoga V., Csiky J., Curran M., Ćušterevska R., Dajić Stevanović Z., De Bie E., de Ruffray P., De Sanctis M., Dimopoulos P., Dressler S., Ejrnæs R., El-Sheikh M.A.E.-R.M., Enquist B., Ewald J., Fagúndez J., Finckh M., Font X., Forey E., Fotiadis G., García-Mijangos I., de Gasper A.L., Golub V., Gutierrez A.G., Hatim M.Z., He T., Higuchi P., Holubová D., Hölzel N., Homeier J., Indreica A., Işık Gürsoy D., Jansen S., Janssen J., Jedrzejek B., Jiroušek M., Jürgens N., Kącki Z., Kavgacı A., Kearsley E., Kessler M., Knollová I., Kolomiychuk V., Korolyuk A., Kozhevnikova M., Kozub Ł., Krstonošić D., Kühl H., Kühn I., Kuzemko A., Küzmič F., Landucci F., Lee M.T., Levesley A., Li C.-F., Liu H., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Lysenko T., Macanović A., Mahdavi P., Manning P., Marcenò C., Martynenko V., Mencuccini M., Minden V., Moeslund J.E., Moretti M., Müller J.V., Munzinger J., Niinemets Ü., Nobis M., Noroozi J., Nowak A., Onyshchenko V., Overbeck G.E., Ozinga W.A., Pauchard A., Pedashenko H., Peñuelas J., Pérez-Haase A., Peterka T., Petřík P., Phillips O.L., Prokhorov V., Rašomavičius V., Revermann R., Rodwell J., Ruprecht E., Rūsiņa S., Samimi C., Schaminée J.H.J., Schmiedel U., Šibík J., Šilc U., Škvorc Ž., Smyth A., Sop T., Sopotlieva D., Sparrow B., Stančić Z., Svenning J.-C., Swacha G., Tang Z., Tsiripidis I., Turtureanu P.D., Uğurlu E., Uogintas D., Valachovič M., Vanselow K.A., Vashenyak Y., Vassilev K., Vélez-Martin E., Venanzoni R., Vibrans A.C., Violle C., Virtanen R., von Wehrden H., Wagner V., Walker D.A., Wana D., Weiher E., Wesche K., Whitfeld T., Willner W., Wiser S., Wohlgemuth T., Yamalov S., Zizka G., Zverev A. (2019) sPlot – A new tool for global vegetation analyses. Journal of Vegetation Science. 30: 161-186.
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Doi: 10.1111/jvs.12710

Resum:

Aims: Vegetation-plot records provide information on the presence and cover or abundance of plants co-occurring in the same community. Vegetation-plot data are spread across research groups, environmental agencies and biodiversity research centers and, thus, are rarely accessible at continental or global scales. Here we present the sPlot database, which collates vegetation plots worldwide to allow for the exploration of global patterns in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity at the plant community level. Results: sPlot version 2.1 contains records from 1,121,244 vegetation plots, which comprise 23,586,216 records of plant species and their relative cover or abundance in plots collected worldwide between 1885 and 2015. We complemented the information for each plot by retrieving climate and soil conditions and the biogeographic context (e.g., biomes) from external sources, and by calculating community-weighted means and variances of traits using gap-filled data from the global plant trait database TRY. Moreover, we created a phylogenetic tree for 50,167 out of the 54,519 species identified in the plots. We present the first maps of global patterns of community richness and community-weighted means of key traits. Conclusions: The availability of vegetation plot data in sPlot offers new avenues for vegetation analysis at the global scale. © 2019 International Association for Vegetation Science

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Temperature and masting control Norway spruce growth, but with high individual tree variability

Hacket-Pain A., Ascoli D., Berretti R., Mencuccini M., Motta R., Nola P., Piussi P., Ruffinatto F., Vacchiano G. (2019) Temperature and masting control Norway spruce growth, but with high individual tree variability. Forest Ecology and Management. 438: 142-150.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2019.02.014

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Tree growth and reproduction are subject to trade-offs in resource allocation. At the same time, they are both influenced by climate. In this study, we combined long records of reproductive effort at the individual- (29 years), population- (41 years) and regional (up to 53 years) scale, and tree ring chronologies, to investigate the effects of climate and reproductive allocation on radial growth in an Alpine Norway spruce forest. Seed and cone production was highly variable between years (mean individual CV = 1.39, population CV = 1.19), but showed high reproductive synchrony between individuals (mean inter-tree correlation = 0.72). No long-term trend in reproductive effort was detected over four decades of observations. At the stand scale, cone production was dominated by a small number of individuals (“super-producers”), who remained dominant over three decades. Individual tree growth responded positively to summer temperature, but the response to cone production varied between individual trees. Consequently, we found some evidence that mast years were associated with a divergence in growth between high and low cone producing individuals, and a decline in within-population growth synchrony. At the population level we found limited evidence of a relationship between growth and reproduction. Radial growth was lower than average in some mast years, but not in others. This was partly explained by summer temperature during the year of growth, with growth reductions restricted to mast years that coincided with colder than average summers. Regional mast records and tree ring chronologies provided some support to indicate that our results were consistent in other spruce stands, although the effect of mast years on growth appeared to vary between sites. Tree ring variation at the individual and population level, and between-tree growth synchrony are influenced by masting, and consequently dendrochronologists should consider both the occurrence of masting and the individual differences in reproductive effort when interpreting tree ring datasets. Our results also indicate that tree ring chronologies contain information to facilitate reconstruction of mast events, which will help address outstanding questions regarding the future response of masting to climate change. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Llegeix més

Modelling water fluxes in plants: from tissues to biosphere

Mencuccini M., Manzoni S., Christoffersen B. (2019) Modelling water fluxes in plants: from tissues to biosphere. New Phytologist. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/nph.15681

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Models of plant water fluxes have evolved from studies focussed on understanding the detailed structure and functioning of specific components of the soil–plant–atmosphere (SPA) continuum to architectures often incorporated inside eco-hydrological and terrestrial biosphere (TB) model schemes. We review here the historical evolution of this field, examine the basic structure of a simplified individual-based model of plant water transport, highlight selected applications for specific ecological problems and conclude by examining outstanding issues requiring further improvements in modelling vegetation water fluxes. We particularly emphasise issues related to the scaling from tissue-level traits to individual-based predictions of water transport, the representation of nonlinear and hysteretic behaviour in soil–xylem hydraulics and the need to incorporate knowledge of hydraulics within broader frameworks of plant ecological strategies and their consequences for predicting community demography and dynamics. © 2019 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2019 New Phytologist Trust

Llegeix més

Exceptionally high mangrove root production rates in the Kelantan Delta, Malaysia; An experimental and comparative study

Muhammad-Nor S.M., Huxham M., Salmon Y., Duddy S.J., Mazars-Simon A., Mencuccini M., Meir P., Jackson G. (2019) Exceptionally high mangrove root production rates in the Kelantan Delta, Malaysia; An experimental and comparative study. Forest Ecology and Management. 444: 214-224.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2019.04.026

Resum:

Mangroves often allocate a relatively large proportion of their total biomass production to their roots, and the belowground biomass of these forests contributes towards globally significant carbon sinks. However, little information is available on root production in mangroves due to the difficulties in carrying out measurements of belowground processes, particularly if there is regular flooding. In this study, we examined fine and coarse root production in the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula. Ingrowth cores were used over the course of 17 months. In September 2014, twenty cores were randomly placed in each of five plots. Three cores were collected from each plot (fifteen cores in total), once every three months. Each core was divided into five 10 cm layers and root dry mass was recorded. Standing root biomass was also measured at the time of final collection using an additional 15 cores. There was a seasonal pattern in root production, which peaked in March and December 2015, after and during the monsoon season. Root biomass in the cores peaked at 33.23 ± 6.3 t ha −1 and 21.46 ± 7.3 t ha −1 in March and December respectively. Standing root biomass in February 2016 in the forest was 20.81 ± 2.8 t ha −1 . After 17 months, the final root biomass in the cores was 14% less than the standing root biomass. These data suggest surprisingly rapid growth rates and turnover for mangrove roots. Total root biomass significantly increased with root depth and 78% of the roots, in all soil layers, consisted of fine roots (<3 mm diameter). Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were investigated in relation to belowground production, as were soil temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen. A data review of global studies reporting similar work was carried out. The results are discussed with consideration to the significance of monsoon rainfall for mangrove ecology. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

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