Schroter D., Cramer W., Leemans R., Prentice I.C., Araujo M.B., Arnell N.W., Bondeau A., Bugmann H., Carter T.R., Gracia C.A., de la Vega-Leinert A.C., Erhard M., Ewert F., Glendining M., House J.I., Kankaanpaa S., Klein R.J.T., Lavorel S., Lindner M., Metzger M.J., Meyer J., Mitchell T.D., Reginster I., Rounsevell M., Sabate S., Sitch S., Smith B., Smith J., Smith P., Sykes M.T., Thonicke K., Thuiller W., Tuck G., Zaehle S., Zierl B. 2005. Ecosystem Service Supply and Human Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe. Science 310: 1333-1337.
Holmgren M, Stapp P, Dickman CR, Gracia C, Graham S, Gutiérrez J, Hice C, Jaksic F, Kelt DA, Letnic M, Lima M, López B, Meserve P, Milstead W, Polis GA, Previtali MA, Richter M, Sabaté S, Squeo FS (2005) A synthesis of ENSO effects on drylands in Australia, North America and South America. Advances in Geosciences 6: 1-4.
Ibàñez JJ, Vayreda J, Mata T, Gracia C (2005) Indicadores ecológicos en el marco del tercer inventario forestal nacional. Tarragona. Dirección general para la Biodiversidad. 107 pp. (ISBN 84-8014-480-7).
Vilà M, Inchausti P, Vayreda J, Barrantes O, Gracia C, Ibàñez JJ, Mata T (2005) Confounding factors in the observational productivity-diversity relationship in forests. Chapter 4. Ecological Studies 176:65-86. Scherer-Lorenzen M, Körner Ch, Schulze E-D (ed) Forest Diversity and Function: Temperate and Boreal Systems. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp.65-86.
Mata M, Ibàñez JJ, Vayreda J, Gracia C (2005) Mapas de modelos de combustible y de modelos de inflamabilidad: Herramientas para la sostenibilidad. La ciencia forestal: respuestas para la sostenibilidad.
Ibàñez JJ, Burriel JA, Vayreda J, Mata T, Gracia C (2005) Los inventarios forestales nacionales: ¿Respuestas para la sostenibilidad?. La ciencia forestal: respuestas para la sostenibilidad.
Peñuelas J, Filella I, Sabaté S, Gracia C (2005) Sistemes naturals: Ecosistemes terrestres. A: J.E. Llebot ed., Informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya. Institut Estudis Catalans, Barcelona, pp. 517-553.
López B.C., Sabaté S., Gracia C.A., Rodríguez R. (2005) Wood anatomy, description of annual rings, and responses to ENSO events of Prosopis pallida H.B.K., a wide-spread woody plant of arid and semi-arid lands of Latin America. Journal of Arid Environments. 61: 541-554.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.10.008
Prosopis pallida H.B.K. is one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the arid and semi-arid lands of the American continent. Sections of P. pallida were used to describe its wood anatomy and to determine whether annual rings were visible or not. Results showed that P. pallida has well-differentiated annual growth rings and is therefore suitable for dendrochronological studies. Tree ring chronologies correlate well with precipitation events related to El Niño Southern Oscillation phases. A master chronology for the northern area of Peru was built with these data, and some physiological derivations from the anatomy of P. pallida wood are discussed. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Morales P., Sykes M.T., Prentice I.C., Smith P., Smith B., Bugmann H., Zierl B., Friedlingstein P., Viovy N., Sabaté S., Sánchez A., Pla E., Gracia C.A., Sitch S., Arneth A., Ogee J. (2005) Comparing and evaluating process-based ecosystem model predictions of carbon and water fluxes in major European forest biomes. Global Change Biology. 11: 2211-2233.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01036.x
Process-based models can be classified into: (a) terrestrial biogeochemical models (TBMs), which simulate fluxes of carbon, water and nitrogen coupled within terrestrial ecosystems, and (b) dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), which further couple these processes interactively with changes in slow ecosystem processes depending on resource competition, establishment, growth and mortality of different vegetation types. In this study, four models - RHESSys, GOTILWA +, LPJ-GUESS and ORCHIDEE - representing both modelling approaches were compared and evaluated against benchmarks provided by eddy-covariance measurements of carbon and water fluxes at 15 forest sites within the EUROFLUX project. Overall, model-measurement agreement varied greatly among sites. Both modelling approaches have somewhat different strengths, but there was no model among those tested that universally performed well on the two variables evaluated. Small biases and errors suggest that ORCHIDEE and GOTILWA + performed better in simulating carbon fluxes while LPJ-GUESS and RHESSys did a better job in simulating water fluxes. In general, the models can be considered as useful tools for studies of climate change impacts on carbon and water cycling in forests. However, the various sources of variation among models simulations and between models simulations and observed data described in this study place some constraints on the results and to some extent reduce their reliability. For example, at most sites in the Mediterranean region all models generally performed poorly most likely because of problems in the representation of water stress effects on both carbon uptake by photosynthesis and carbon release by heterotrophic respiration (Rh). The use of flux data as a means of assessing key processes in models of this type is an important approach to improving model performance. Our results show that the models have value but that further model development is necessary with regard to the representation of the some of the key ecosystem processes. © 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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