Happe A.-K., Alins G., Blüthgen N., Boreux V., Bosch J., García D., Hambäck P.A., Klein A.-M., Martínez-Sastre R., Miñarro M., Müller A.-K., Porcel M., Rodrigo A., Roquer-Beni L., Samnegård U., Tasin M., Mody K. (2019) Predatory arthropods in apple orchards across Europe: Responses to agricultural management, adjacent habitat, landscape composition and country. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 273: 141-150.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.12.012
Local agri-environmental schemes, including hedgerows, flowering strips, organic management, and a landscape rich in semi-natural habitat patches, are assumed to enhance the presence of beneficial arthropods and their contribution to biological control in fruit crops. We studied the influence of local factors (orchard management and adjacent habitats) and of landscape composition on the abundance and community composition of predatory arthropods in apple orchards in three European countries. To elucidate how local and landscape factors influence natural enemy effectiveness in apple production systems, we calculated community energy use as a proxy for the communities’ predation potential based on biomass and metabolic rates of predatory arthropods. Predator communities were assessed by standardised beating samples taken from apple trees in 86 orchards in Germany, Spain and Sweden. Orchard management included integrated production (IP; i.e. the reduced and targeted application of synthetic agrochemicals), and organic management practices in all three countries. Predator communities differed between management types and countries. Several groups, including beetles (Coleoptera), predatory bugs (Heteroptera), flies (Diptera) and spiders (Araneae) benefited from organic management depending on country. Woody habitat and IP supported harvestmen (Opiliones). In both IP and organic orchards we detected aversive influences of a high-quality surrounding landscape on some predator groups: for example, high covers of woody habitat reduced earwig abundances in German orchards but enhanced their abundance in Sweden, and high natural plant species richness tended to reduce predatory bug abundance in Sweden and IP orchards in Spain. We conclude that predatory arthropod communities and influences of local and landscape factors are strongly shaped by orchard management, and that the influence of management differs between countries. Our results indicate that organic management improves the living conditions for effective predator communities. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
Samnegård U., Alins G., Boreux V., Bosch J., García D., Happe A.-K., Klein A.-M., Miñarro M., Mody K., Porcel M., Rodrigo A., Roquer-Beni L., Tasin M., Hambäck P.A. (2019) Management trade-offs on ecosystem services in apple orchards across Europe: Direct and indirect effects of organic production. Journal of Applied Ecology. 56: 802-811.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13292
Apple is considered the most important fruit crop in temperate areas and profitable production depends on multiple ecosystem services, including the reduction of pest damage and the provision of sufficient pollination levels. Management approaches present an inherent trade-off as each affects species differently. We quantified the direct and indirect effects of management (organic vs. integrated pest management, IPM) on species richness, ecosystem services, and fruit production in 85 apple orchards in three European countries. We also quantified how habit composition influenced these effects at three spatial scales: within orchards, adjacent to orchards, and in the surrounding landscape. Organic management resulted in 48% lower yield than IPM, and also that the variation between orchards was large with some organic orchards having a higher yield than the average yield of IPM orchards. The lower yield in organic orchards resulted directly from management practices, and from higher pest damage in organic orchards. These negative yield effects were partly offset by indirect positive effects from more natural enemies and higher flower visitation rates in organic orchards. Two factors other than management affected species richness and ecosystem services. Higher cover of flowering plants within and adjacent to the apple trees increased flower visitation rates by pollinating insects and a higher cover of apple orchards in the landscape decreased species richness of beneficial arthropods. The species richness of beneficial arthropods in orchards was uncorrelated with fruit production, suggesting that diversity can be increased without large yield loss. At the same time, organic orchards had 38% higher species richness than IPM orchards, an effect that is likely due to differences in pest management. Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that organic management is more efficient than integrated pest management in developing environmentally friendly apple orchards with higher species richness. We also demonstrate that there is no inherent trade-off between species richness and yield. Development of more environmentally friendly means for pest control, which do not negatively affect pollination services, needs to be a priority for sustainable apple production. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society
(2018) Yearly fluctuations of flower landscape in a Mediterranean scrubland: Consequences for floral resource availability. . : -.EnllaçDoi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191268
Hevia, V., Bosch, J., Azcárate, F.M., Fernández, E., Rodrigo, A., Barril-Graells, H., González, J.A. (2016) Bee diversity and abundance in a livestock drove road and its impact on pollination and seed set in adjacent sunflower fields. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 232: 336-344.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.08.021
Osorio-Canadas, S., Arnan, X., Rodrigo, A., Torné-Noguera, A., Molowny, R., Bosch, J. (2016) Body size phenology in a regional bee fauna: A temporal extension of Bergmann's rule. Ecology Letters. : 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/ele.12687
Torné-Noguera A., Rodrigo A., Osorio S., Bosch J. (2015) Collateral effects of beekeeping: Impacts on pollen-nectar resources and wild bee communities. Basic and Applied Ecology. : 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.baae.2015.11.004
Due to the contribution of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to wild flower and crop pollination, beekeeping has traditionally been considered a sustainable practice. However, high honey bee densities may have an impact on local pollen and nectar availability, which in turn may negatively affect other pollinators. This is exacerbated by the ability of honey bees to recruit foragers to highly rewarding flower patches. We measured floral resource consumption in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in 21 plots located at different distances from apiaries in the scrubland of Garraf Natural Park (Barcelona), and related these measures to visitation rates of honey bees, bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and other pollinators. In the same plots, we measured flower density, and used pan traps to characterize the wild bee community. Flower resource consumption was largely explained by honey bee visitation and marginally by bumblebee visitation. After accounting for flower density, plots close to apiaries had lower wild bee biomass. This was due to a lower abundance of large bee species, those more likely to be affected by honey bee competition. We conclude that honey bees are the main contributors to pollen/nectar consumption of the two main flowering plants in the scrubland, and that at the densities currently occurring in the park (3.5hives/km2) the wild bee community is being affected. Our study supports the hypothesis that high honey bee densities may have an impact on other pollinators via competition for flower resources. Wegen des Beitrages der Honigbiene (Apis mellifera) bei der Bestäubung von Wildblumen und Nutzpflanzen wurde die Bienenhaltung traditionell als eine nachhaltige Aktivität angesehen. Indessen können hohe Honigbienendichten Auswirkungen auf die lokale Verfügbarkeit von Nektar und Pollen haben, was wiederum andere Bestäuber negativ beeinflussen könnte. Dies wird verstärkt durch die Fähigkeit der Honigbiene, Sammlerinnen zu lohnenden Sammelstellen zu dirigieren. Im Buschland des Garraf-Naturparks bei Barcelona maßen wir den Verbrauch von Blütenressourcen an Rosmarin (Rosmarinus officinalis) und Thymian (Thymus vulgaris) an 21 Standorten, die unterschiedlich weit von Bienenständen entfernt lagen, und setzten diese Werte in Bezug zu den Besuchsraten von Honigbienen, Hummeln (Bombus terrestris) und sonstigen Bestäubern. An den gleichen Standorten bestimmten wir die Blütendichte und setzten Farbschalen ein, um die Wildbienengemeinschaft zu erfassen. Die Nutzung der Blüt enressou wurde weitgehend durch die Besuchsraten der Honigbiene erklärt und in geringfügigem Maße durch Hummelbesuch. Nach Berücksichtigung der Blütendichte wiesen Standorte in der Nähe von Bienenständen eine geringere Wildbienen-Biomasse auf. Dies war auf eine geringere Abundanz der großen Wildbienenarten zurückzuführen, also der Arten, die wahrscheinlich durch die Konkurrenz der Honigbiene beeinträchtigt werden. Wir schließen, dass Honigbienen den größten Beitrag zum Pollen- bzw. Nektarverbrauch bei den beiden wichtigsten Blütenpflanzen des Gebietes leisten und dass die Wildbienengemeinschaft bei den gegenwärtigen Honigbienendichten im Park (3.5 Völker/km2) beeinflusst wird. Unsere Untersuchung unterstützt die Hypothese, dass hohe Honigbienendichten durch Konkurrenz um Blütenressourcen einen Einfluss auf andere Bestäuber haben könnten. © 2015 Gesellschaft für Ökologie.
Arnan X., Escola A., Rodrigo A., Bosch J. (2014) Female reproductive success in gynodioecious Thymus vulgaris: Pollen versus nutrient limitation and pollinator foraging behaviour. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 175: 395-408.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/boj.12173
Gynodioecy is a dimorphic breeding system in which female individuals coexist with hermaphroditic individuals in the same population. Females only contribute to the next generation via ovules, and many studies have shown that they are usually less attractive than hermaphrodites to pollinators. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how females manage to persist in populations despite these disadvantages. The 'resource reallocation hypothesis' (RRH) states that females channel resources not invested in pollen production and floral advertisement towards the production of more and/or larger seeds. We investigated pollination patterns and tested the RRH in a population of Thymus vulgaris. We measured flower display, flower size, nectar production, visitation rates, pollinator constancy and flower lifespan in the two morphs. In addition, we measured experimentally the effects of pollen and resource addition on female reproductive success (fruit set, seed set, seed weight) of the two morphs. Despite lower investment in floral advertisement, female individuals were no less attractive to pollinators than hermaphrodites on a per flower basis. Other measures of pollinator behaviour (number of flowers visited per plant, morph preference and morph constancy) also showed that pollinators did not discriminate against female flowers. In addition, stigma receptivity was longer in female flowers. Accordingly, and contrary to most studies on gynodioecious species, reproductive success of females was not pollen limited. Instead, seed production was pollen limited in hermaphrodites, suggesting low levels of cross-pollination in hermaphrodites. Seed production was resource limited in hermaphrodites, but not in females, thus providing support for the RRH. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London.
Torne-Noguera A., Rodrigo A., Arnan X., Osorio S., Barril-Graells H., Da Rocha-Filho L.C., Bosch J. (2014) Determinants of spatial distribution in a bee community: Nesting resources, flower resources, and body size. PLoS ONE. 9: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097255
Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i) to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii) to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii) to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (<55 mg) species (with presumed smaller foraging ranges), and is mostly explained by flower resources rather than nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8%) of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500-1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks. © 2014 Torné-Noguera et al.
Eklof A., Jacob U., Kopp J., Bosch J., Castro-Urgal R., Chacoff N.P., Dalsgaard B., de Sassi C., Galetti M., Guimaraes P.R., Lomascolo S.B., Martin Gonzalez A.M., Pizo M.A., Rader R., Rodrigo A., Tylianakis J.M., Vazquez D.P., Allesina S. (2013) The dimensionality of ecological networks. Ecology Letters. 16: 577-583.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/ele.12081
How many dimensions (trait-axes) are required to predict whether two species interact? This unanswered question originated with the idea of ecological niches, and yet bears relevance today for understanding what determines network structure. Here, we analyse a set of 200 ecological networks, including food webs, antagonistic and mutualistic networks, and find that the number of dimensions needed to completely explain all interactions is small (
Filella I., Primante C., Llusia J., Martin Gonzalez A.M., Seco R., Farre-Armengol G., Rodrigo A., Bosch J., Penuelas J. (2013) Floral advertisement scent in a changing plant-pollinators market. Scientific Reports. 3: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/srep03434
Plant-pollinator systems may be considered as biological markets in which pollinators choose between different flowers that advertise their nectar/pollen rewards. Although expected to play a major role in structuring plant-pollinator interactions, community-wide patterns of flower scent signals remain largely unexplored. Here we show for the first time that scent advertisement is higher in plant species that bloom early in the flowering period when pollinators are scarce relative to flowers than in species blooming later in the season when there is a surplus of pollinators relative to flowers. We also show that less abundant flowering species that may compete with dominant species for pollinator visitation early in the flowering period emit much higher proportions of the generalist attractant β-ocimene. Overall, we provide a first community-wide description of the key role of seasonal dynamics of plant-specific flower scent emissions, and reveal the coexistence of contrasting plant signaling strategies in a plant-pollinator market.
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