Vilà M, Maron JL, Marco L (2005) Evidence for the enemy release hypothesis in Hypericum perforatum. Oecologia 142:474-479.
Sampaio MC, Picó FX, Scarano FR (2005) Ramet demography of a nurse bromeliad in Brazilian Restingas. American Journal of Botany 92: 674-681.
Escudero M., Castillo S, Querol X., Avila A., Alarcón M, Viana MM., Alastuey A., Cuevas E, Rodríguez S (2005) Wet and dry African dust episodes over Eastern Spain. Journal Geophysical Research, 110, D18S08, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004731.
Gómez, C, Espadaler X., Bas JM (2005) Ant behaviour and seed morphology: a missing link in myrmecochory. Oecologia 146: 244-246.
Chuvieco E, Bosque J, Pons X, Conesa C, Santos JM, Gutiérrez Puebla J, Salado MJ, Martín MP, De la Riva J, Ojeda J, Prados MJ (2005) ¿Son las tecnologías de la información Geográfica (TIG) parte del núcleo de la Geografía?. Boletín de la A.G.E. 40: 35-55.
Bielsa I, Pons X, Bunce B (2005) Agricultural Abandonment in the North Eastern Iberian Peninsula: The Use of Basic Landscape Metrics to Support Planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 48: 85-102.
Alastuey A., Querol X., Castillo S., Escudero M., Avila A., Cuevas E., Torres C., Romero P.-M., Exposito F., García O., Diaz J.P., Van Dingenen R., Putaud J.P. (2005) Characterisation of TSP and PM2.5 at Izaña and Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during a Saharan Dust Episode (July 2002). Atmospheric Environment. 39: 4715-4728.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.018
A strong African dust outbreak episode affecting the Canary Islands from 28 to 31/07/02 has been characterised at the Izaña Observatory (IZO), located in the free troposphere (FT), and at Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). The Saharan air mass intruded above the trade wind inversion layer resulting in daily mean PM levels of up to 616, 312, 98 and 26 μg m-3 of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively, at IZO. As demonstrated by the vertical sounding profiles, the MBL is compressed during the Saharan intrusion, favouring the deposition of coarse dust particles to the MBL and giving rise to daily levels of up to 85, 52 and 30 μg m-3 of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively, at SCO. A complete chemical and mineralogical characterisation has been performed for TSP and PM2.5 collected simultaneously at both sites. Levels of mineral elements increased during the Saharan episode at both sampling sites. In addition, at the MBL, the levels of the secondary inorganic aerosols registered during the Saharan episode were considerably higher than levels recorded during non-Saharan episodes. The partial formation of secondary coarse Ca and/or Na sulphates and nitrates by the reaction of gaseous pollutants (or derived oxidised phases), of a major local origin, with the natural aerosols has been deduced. These reactions may be favoured by the high concentration of coarse mineral and marine aerosols particles measured at SCO, the high relative humidity (RH) measured, as well as the strong compression of the MBL during the Saharan episode. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrés P., Domene X. (2005) Ecotoxicological and fertilizing effects of dewatered, composted and dry sewage sludge on soil mesofauna: A TME experiment. Ecotoxicology. 14: 545-557.EnllaçDoi: 10.1007/s10646-005-0006-8
The effects of dewatered, composted and dry urban sewage sludge on the soil mesofauna were tested in mesocosms. PVC containers were filled with soil/sludge mixtures in a proportion to amount to 6% organic matter content and were colonized with soil fauna coming from undisturbed forest soils. Mesocosms were incubated under laboratory conditions for 7, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days, after which fauna was extracted in Berlese funnels. The animals were classified at different taxonomic levels. Acari were classified to the suborder level for Astigmata, to the family level for Mesostigmata and Prostigmata and to the species level for Cryptostigmata. Acute- and medium-term effects were determined on the faunal density, relative abundance of the main taxa and community structure. Prostigmata were sensitive to the acute effect of the sludge, whereas Mesostigmata and particularly Cryptostigmata were sensitive to its medium-term effect. The most negative effects were found for dry sludge, which caused acute and medium-term effects on the invertebrate communities and on the soil trophic structure. © 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
Bielsa I., Pons X., Bunce B. (2005) Agricultural abandonment in the north eastern Iberian Peninsula: The use of basic landscape metrics to support planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 48: 85-102.EnllaçDoi: 10.1080/0964056042000308166
Land abandonment is an important cause of changes in landscape patterns in the Mediterranean area. There is a need to monitor land use and land cover changes in order to provide quantitative evidence of the relationship between land abandonment and the formation of new landscape patterns. Appropriate management policies to encourage sustainable development can then be developed. This paper describes how to monitor landscape dynamics using different temporal land use and land cover data generated from field survey and airborne information. The results showed that the abandonment of agricultural land generally results in an increase of vegetation biomass. This process leads to homogenization of the landscape. In addition, abandonment promotes fragmentation of agricultural land. Based on these results, the paper discusses the implications for rural management policies concerning the abandonment of agricultural land and suggests recommendations for the development of such policies. © 2005 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Bosch J., Vicens N. (2005) Sex allocation in the solitary bee Osmia cornuta: Do females behave in agreement with Fisher's theory?. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 59: 124-132.EnllaçDoi: 10.1007/s00265-005-0017-8
Fisher's theory of sex allocation predicts that, in a panmictic population, parental investment will be equally distributed between male and female progeny. Most studies on parental investment in nesting solitary bees and wasps use offspring or provision weight as estimators of parental investment and do not corroborate Fisher's theory. The measurement of parental investment may be confounded by several factors. First, the use of offspring or provision size does not account for seasonal variation in foraging costs associated with aging of nesting females. Second, provision or offspring size do not reflect parental investment associated with nest construction. In this two-year study we measured parental investment in a solitary bee. We calculated sex allocation using both provision weight and foraging time as parental investment estimators. Investment in pollen-nectar provisions decreased, while investment in mud structures (nest construction) increased, as the nesting period progressed. Overall investment in provisions per nest was ∼25 times higher than investment in mud. Pollen-nectar foraging trips became longer as the season progressed, but mud trip duration did not vary. Due to weather differences between years, more offspring per female were produced in the first year, but progeny sex ratio and mean offspring size of both sexes were similar between years. Mortality did not differ between sexes. As predicted by Fisher's theory, production cost ratios did not differ from 1 in either year, irrespective of the currency used to estimate parental investment (provision weight or foraging time). Our results strongly support Fisher's theory. © Springer-Verlag 2005.
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